Narva

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Narva
  • Version 1.0
  • Publication date 5 March 2024

The prison in Narva was a police detention facility for Jews and Roma (among others) prior to their murder or deportation. The city of Narva at the border with Russia is also the site where the first known mass killing of Roma in German-occupied Estonia took place.

According to the population data issued by the Estonian statistics office, 178 Roma lived in Viru province—of which Narva was administratively a part—on the eve of the German occupation. The city of Narva had 14 Romani residents and Rakvere 112. The Security Police office in Narva covered a large territory, extending as far as Jõhvi, 50 km to the west (although Rakvere had its own Security Police office).

On the night of 1 November 1941, the Estonian Security Police in Narva rounded up 260 people, including a Roma family of three. Vera (unknown–unknown) and Valentina Indus (unknown–unknown) were among the three children held in Narva prison at the time. In January 1942, 42 Roma were living in the territory of Narva police prefecture, and by April there were only 20. The Estonian Security Police reported on 17 Roma (six males and 11 females) who had faced a firing squad prior to 1 July 1942. Among the dead were apparently Vera and Valentina Indus. The surviving evidence does not reveal where and when exactly the 17 victims lost their lives. By 22 July 1942, thirteen Roma were still alive in Narva, appearing on the list of aliens prepared by the local police.

On 22 January 1943, the Head of the German Security Police (Sipo) in Estonia, Dr Martin Sandberger (1911–2010), ordered the deportation of all Estonian Roma to Tallinn Central Prison. The list of Roma transferred from Narva to Rakvere on 4 February 1943 contained 14 names. Four days later a train with 92 Roma on board left Rakvere for Tallinn. Briefly incarcerated in Tallinn Central Prison, Roma from all over Estonia faced death by bullet: 110 individuals on 10 February and 337 individuals on 17 February. In all likelihood they were shot at Kalevi-Liiva. Among the dead were Lonny Indus (unknown–1943) and Willem Indus (unknown–1943) from Narva and their six children.

Citation

Anton Weiss-Wendt: Narva, in: Encyclopaedia of the Nazi Genocide of the Sinti and Roma in Europe. Ed. by Karola Fings, Research Centre on Antigypsyism at Heidelberg University, Heidelberg 5 March 2024. -

1941
1 November 1941On the night of 1 November 1941, the Estonian Security Police in Narva (German-occupied Estonia) rounds up 260 people, including a Roma family of three.
1942
1 July 1942The Estonian Security Police reports on 17 Roma (six males and eleven females) who have faced a firing squad up to this point. Among the dead are probably the two children Vera and Valentina Indus.
1943
22 January 1943Head of the German Security Police in occupied Estonia Dr Martin Sandberger orders the deportation of all Estonian Roma.
9 February 1943A train with 92 Roma on board departs from Rakvere for Tallinn in German-occupied Estonia. Briefly incarcerated in Tallinn Central Prison, Roma from all over Estonia face death by bullet.
10 February 1943Mass shooting of 110 Roma previously imprisoned in Tallinn Central Prison (German-occupied Estonia) by the German Security Police, probably in Kalevi-Liiva. Among the victims is Lonny Indus from Narva, wife of Willem Indus, together with their six children.
17 February 1943Mass shooting of 337 Roma previously imprisoned in Tallinn Central Prison (German-occupied Estonia) by the German Security Police, probably in Kalevi-Liiva. Willem Indus from Narva is among the victims, as are the fifteen-year-old Pavel Koslovski from Petseri parish and his father, Nikolai Koslovski.